家蛙树

Hyperledger Fabric权限进阶篇

Zealot
区块链
2018-10-12

对于Fabric的权限和MSP配置这块,可能大家实际部署会给一堆msp目录绕晕,我们回过头来梳理一下。

1.Peer节点如何控制用户的采访权限?
我们以first-network为例, 先看下peer0的启动配置docker-compose-cli.yaml。

引用到base/docker-compose-base.yaml

peer0.org1.example.com:
    container_name: peer0.org1.example.com
    extends:
      file: peer-base.yaml
      service: peer-base
    environment:
      - CORE_PEER_ID=peer0.org1.example.com
      - CORE_PEER_ADDRESS=peer0.org1.example.com:7051
      - CORE_PEER_GOSSIP_BOOTSTRAP=peer1.org1.example.com:7051
      - CORE_PEER_GOSSIP_EXTERNALENDPOINT=peer0.org1.example.com:7051
      - CORE_PEER_LOCALMSPID=Org1MSP
    volumes:
        - /var/run/:/host/var/run/
        - ../crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/peers/peer0.org1.example.com/msp:/etc/hyperledger/fabric/msp
        - ../crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/peers/peer0.org1.example.com/tls:/etc/hyperledger/fabric/tls
        - peer0.org1.example.com:/var/hyperledger/production
    ports:
      - 7051:7051
      - 7053:7053

引用到base/peer-base.yaml

services:
  peer-base:
    image: hyperledger/fabric-peer:$IMAGE_TAG
    environment:
      - CORE_VM_ENDPOINT=unix:///host/var/run/docker.sock
      # the following setting starts chaincode containers on the same
      # bridge network as the peers
      # https://docs.docker.com/compose/networking/
      - CORE_VM_DOCKER_HOSTCONFIG_NETWORKMODE=${COMPOSE_PROJECT_NAME}_byfn
      - CORE_LOGGING_LEVEL=INFO
      #- CORE_LOGGING_LEVEL=DEBUG
      - CORE_PEER_TLS_ENABLED=true
      - CORE_PEER_GOSSIP_USELEADERELECTION=true
      - CORE_PEER_GOSSIP_ORGLEADER=false
      - CORE_PEER_PROFILE_ENABLED=true
      - CORE_PEER_TLS_CERT_FILE=/etc/hyperledger/fabric/tls/server.crt
      - CORE_PEER_TLS_KEY_FILE=/etc/hyperledger/fabric/tls/server.key
      - CORE_PEER_TLS_ROOTCERT_FILE=/etc/hyperledger/fabric/tls/ca.crt
    working_dir: /opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/peer
    command: peer node start

peer node start启动节点peer0.org1.example.com

环境变量CORE_PEER_MSPCONFIGPATH这里没有显示声明, 默认值应该是对应docker容器里面的/etc/hyperledger/fabric/msp

蓝色部分的卷映射指向主机的
../crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/peers/peer0.org1.example.com/msp

[root@k8s-master msp]# pwd
/mnt/sda3/fabric-samples/first-network/crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/peers/peer0.org1.example.com/msp
[root@k8s-master msp]# ll
总用量 24
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 9月  29 10:32 admincerts
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 9月  29 10:32 cacerts
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  254 9月  29 10:32 config.yaml
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 9月  29 10:32 keystore
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 9月  29 10:32 signcerts
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 9月  29 10:32 tlscacerts

(1)cacerts

文件夹放置的用于身份识别的ca根证书, 回忆下基础篇的会员身份使用PKI等数字签名技术用于识别客户身份(这里特指可连接到peer节点的客户端)。

一个组织对一个根CA(不考虑中间CA情况), 所以组织org1下的peer0和peer1实际配置的是同一个ca.org1.example.com-cert.pem, 所以这个文件夹应该放的是对应组织的CA根证书

[root@k8s-master cacerts]# pwd
/mnt/sda3/fabric-samples/first-network/crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/peers/peer0.org1.example.com/msp/cacerts
[root@k8s-master cacerts]# ll
总用量 4
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 843 9月  29 10:32 ca.org1.example.com-cert.pem

假装专业些给大家看下证书内容

[root@k8s-master cacerts]# openssl x509 -in ca.org1.example.com-cert.pem -noout -text
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            17:b3:7f:af:19:79:82:d1:1d:78:86:fb:97:10:e7:50
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
        Issuer: C=US, ST=California, L=San Francisco, O=org1.example.com, CN=ca.org1.example.com
        Validity
            Not Before: Sep 29 02:27:16 2018 GMT
            Not After : Sep 26 02:27:16 2028 GMT
        Subject: C=US, ST=California, L=San Francisco, O=org1.example.com, CN=ca.org1.example.com
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (256 bit)
                pub: 
                    04:13:93:55:07:a9:bf:a1:19:7d:21:c0:ee:2d:2a:
                    94:d4:e6:9b:27:35:c9:56:f4:72:81:a1:41:08:96:
                    77:b6:6b:2b:c9:fa:78:b7:07:fe:a1:db:20:e5:1c:
                    88:1b:94:7b:57:6f:e4:47:5c:ab:a5:fe:dd:c1:ff:
                    30:9f:2a:02:ae
                ASN1 OID: prime256v1
                NIST CURVE: P-256
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Key Encipherment, Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
            X509v3 Extended Key Usage: 
                Any Extended Key Usage
            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:TRUE
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 
                F3:40:31:60:A2:2B:B9:CB:B5:FD:10:24:E1:BA:65:D9:8D:2C:E4:E1:AB:51:FB:55:6B:17:35:E1:11:CF:6E:82
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
         30:44:02:20:03:84:0c:0e:e5:12:dd:77:af:5d:cc:ea:a3:f0:
         e2:e4:b5:8a:b2:36:7c:27:9b:e9:6d:e0:8a:e4:c1:97:7b:33:
         02:20:7b:bf:6e:2b:f5:fc:94:18:cf:db:f0:55:15:ea:22:7c:
         ee:df:38:30:04:33:b0:81:7b:08:b1:79:44:4c:42:d7
[root@k8s-master cacerts]#

(2)config.yaml
主要配置的可采访的组织单元,也就是说X.509 PEM证书里面的OU(组织单元)要么是client或者peer才能采访当前节点。

NodeOUs:
  Enable: true
  ClientOUIdentifier:
    Certificate: cacerts/ca.org1.example.com-cert.pem
    OrganizationalUnitIdentifier: client
  PeerOUIdentifier:
    Certificate: cacerts/ca.org1.example.com-cert.pem
    OrganizationalUnitIdentifier: peer

对于这里的Certification配置也有一些疑惑, cacerts文件夹使用根CA证书确定了连接客户身份,这里的config.yaml算是第二层过滤吧, 每个不同类型的组织单元OUIdentifier的Certificate应该不能对应其它的CA根证书,应该只能是同一个CA根证书或者不同的中间CA证书。

OU=client的证书实际上后面会看到admincerts是OU=client, org1下的
User1@org1.example.com用户也是OU=client, 貌似外部接入peer节点的用户都归到OU=client.

OU=peer的证书暂时只有peer节点自身的证书,例如peer0,peer1都是OU=peer
/mnt/sda3/fabric-samples/first-network/crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/peers/peer0.org1.example.com/msp/signcerts/peer0.org1.example.com-cert.pem

实际OU=client和peer的有什么不同权限,笔者估计是peer是标记不同peer节点的调用, 或者是在链码安装的时候可以指定不同的OU

config.yaml的配置是可选的, 它是通过crypto-config.yaml下org设置了EnableNodeOUs: true才默认会生成MSP模板。

(3)keystore
存放的peer0节点的私钥,可以用于数字签名。

[root@k8s-master msp]# cd keystore/
[root@k8s-master keystore]# ll
总用量 4
-rw-------. 1 root root 241 9月  29 10:32 
47374918f7a4640f8d28d89b66820505702cb269bd2f1314ca420fbb64950223_sk

私钥内容

——-BEGIN PRIVATE KEY——-
MIGHAgEAMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqGSM49AwEHBG0wawIBAQQgMJM5N0U+nS8GYarY
GwQfj++skU1ttNDj9xalBVZrUOShRANCAASQemtTNZXyQktIv1XrWqRItxB6ldSp
PWWszknMJvRetGBMG03ekUeeNeIDbdQSiLhcjttWfBZgMxZziEXqj22O
——-END PRIVATE KEY——-

(4)signcerts

存放的是peer0被ca.org1.example.com签名的证书。注意到蓝色部分, OU=peer

[root@k8s-master msp]# cd signcerts/
[root@k8s-master signcerts]# ll
总用量 4
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 810 9月  29 10:32 peer0.org1.example.com-cert.pem
[root@k8s-master signcerts]# vim peer0.org1.example.com-cert.pem 
[root@k8s-master signcerts]# openssl x509 -in peer0.org1.example.com-cert.pem -noout -text
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            97:ca:cf:78:35:11:e4:02:f7:c8:a9:52:61:b6:e6:44
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
        Issuer: C=US, ST=California, L=San Francisco, O=org1.example.com, CN=ca.org1.example.com
        Validity
            Not Before: Sep 29 02:27:16 2018 GMT
            Not After : Sep 26 02:27:16 2028 GMT
        Subject: C=US, ST=California, L=San Francisco, OU=peer, CN=peer0.org1.example.com
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (256 bit)
                pub: 
                    04:90:7a:6b:53:35:95:f2:42:4b:48:bf:55:eb:5a:
                    a4:48:b7:10:7a:95:d4:a9:3d:65:ac:ce:49:cc:26:
                    f4:5e:b4:60:4c:1b:4d:de:91:47:9e:35:e2:03:6d:
                    d4:12:88:b8:5c:8e:db:56:7c:16:60:33:16:73:88:
                    45:ea:8f:6d:8e
                ASN1 OID: prime256v1
                NIST CURVE: P-256
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature
            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:FALSE
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: 
                keyid:F3:40:31:60:A2:2B:B9:CB:B5:FD:10:24:E1:BA:65:D9:8D:2C:E4:E1:AB:51:FB:55:6B:17:35:E1:11:CF:6E:82

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
         30:45:02:21:00:d2:c3:79:5f:cc:95:be:6c:39:bc:b0:ee:ce:
         c2:95:d7:59:2b:b3:30:fc:f3:4c:ae:cb:5a:16:9b:90:43:87:
         a9:02:20:5d:ab:06:b6:7d:8d:23:bc:20:2b:e2:66:59:31:35:
         d6:35:a3:e3:bf:3d:5c:3a:13:e9:f2:b9:71:b4:b0:1c:4f
[root@k8s-master signcerts]#

(5)tlscacerts

如果peer0启用了TLS保证安全和校验,就必须指定tlscacerts证书了,一般使用与cacerts不同的ca证书会安全些。 证书内容如下:

[root@k8s-master tlscacerts]# ll
总用量 4
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 855 9月  29 10:32 tlsca.org1.example.com-cert.pem
[root@k8s-master tlscacerts]# openssl x509 -in tlsca.org1.example.com-cert.pem -noout -text
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            7a:fa:31:77:69:bb:28:fc:b9:3d:81:98:7b:f3:83:64
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
        Issuer: C=US, ST=California, L=San Francisco, O=org1.example.com, CN=tlsca.org1.example.com
        Validity
            Not Before: Sep 29 02:27:16 2018 GMT
            Not After : Sep 26 02:27:16 2028 GMT
        Subject: C=US, ST=California, L=San Francisco, O=org1.example.com, CN=tlsca.org1.example.com
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (256 bit)
                pub: 
                    04:92:79:62:41:43:06:7d:30:65:ef:2c:ae:87:8e:
                    41:f6:12:27:f0:9f:a0:c1:3d:f1:03:3d:ee:e7:45:
                    87:58:72:f7:a0:24:85:d8:3d:01:42:d2:01:15:fc:
                    e1:8a:d8:6b:56:0c:25:e2:98:8d:09:fb:0e:a5:65:
                    ea:4a:ec:a0:06
                ASN1 OID: prime256v1
                NIST CURVE: P-256
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Key Encipherment, Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
            X509v3 Extended Key Usage: 
                Any Extended Key Usage
            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:TRUE
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 
                25:41:EA:7D:4B:4F:14:0B:13:6D:E1:EE:09:AA:00:A6:90:66:B4:2B:2F:90:6B:DF:E2:EF:D6:59:AE:17:40:4B
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
         30:45:02:21:00:cd:3b:23:ed:fb:2b:de:bf:64:87:f0:af:f6:
         0a:02:5f:26:83:ff:32:08:58:16:23:ba:30:36:b5:ee:aa:c9:
         55:02:20:4b:40:a8:89:c7:2d:0c:8f:c0:b6:34:9a:72:f0:47:
         0e:66:8a:85:7b:d6:51:d6:1f:75:1e:e6:03:40:95:09:c9

参考peer-base.yaml是开启了TLS的 - CORE_PEER_TLS_ENABLED=true

(6)admincerts
这里存放的是整个组织org1的管理员证书, 和
/mnt/sda3/fabric-samples/first-network/crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/users/Admin@org1.example.com下的签名证书是一致的, peer1.org1.example.com节点也是如此。

就是说执行cryptogen generate —config=./crypto-config.yaml默认就是让org1下的所有peer都有相同的admin.

如果peer0和peer1的admincerts不一样,应该会有问题,第二个问题我们会查看下创世块的具体内容,里面指定的是组织的admin而不会有节点的admin。

话说这个admin的权限就比较大了,可以把peer节点加入到channel, 可以安装和实例化chaincode。BYFN里面容器里面执行的peer命令实际对应的都是admin的msp.

[root@k8s-master admincerts]# pwd
/mnt/sda3/fabric-samples/first-network/crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/peers/peer0.org1.example.com/msp/admincerts
[root@k8s-master admincerts]# ll
总用量 4
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 810 9月  29 10:32 Admin@org1.example.com-cert.pem

我们看下组织管理员证书的内容, OU=client

[root@k8s-master admincerts]# openssl x509 -in Admin\@org1.example.com-cert.pem -noout -text
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            48:15:46:a1:6c:25:63:98:c7:e9:c5:26:b8:67:f9:53
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
        Issuer: C=US, ST=California, L=San Francisco, O=org1.example.com, CN=ca.org1.example.com
        Validity
            Not Before: Sep 29 02:27:16 2018 GMT
            Not After : Sep 26 02:27:16 2028 GMT
        Subject: C=US, ST=California, L=San Francisco, OU=client, CN=Admin@org1.example.com
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (256 bit)
                pub: 
                    04:59:01:48:99:af:c8:30:17:e2:5a:b4:ee:5a:1c:
                    c6:79:a7:c5:3a:14:20:d1:a0:39:de:13:5e:99:c6:
                    d1:4e:9c:cd:63:fb:73:96:9f:b4:48:60:4f:8e:72:
                    10:ee:54:19:33:5f:dc:29:e2:94:39:b3:4e:f2:d3:
                    cd:1f:3d:0a:54
                ASN1 OID: prime256v1
                NIST CURVE: P-256
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature
            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:FALSE
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: 
                keyid:F3:40:31:60:A2:2B:B9:CB:B5:FD:10:24:E1:BA:65:D9:8D:2C:E4:E1:AB:51:FB:55:6B:17:35:E1:11:CF:6E:82

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
         30:44:02:20:0c:be:41:5b:58:1e:df:7e:78:5d:77:00:44:c7:
         a1:c8:2f:e1:6b:bb:8a:ac:b2:26:aa:ab:35:f6:f5:4b:66:6d:
         02:20:46:b7:32:c2:4f:a1:d0:89:20:32:42:35:50:80:8e:9e:
         ba:66:d6:b2:6b:55:1f:e0:b5:5f:2c:04:be:b0:6c:1e

小结:
PEER作为接入点, 主要也是靠本地的MSP去识别用户身份,判断用户是否是所信任的CA颁发证书, 再结合组织单元等确定用户是否可采访节点。

2.Channel是如何控制不同组织或peer节点的接入权限的?

一个channel对应一个ledger账本, 也可以说对应一条区块链,怎么控制采访账本的用户呢?

先看BYFN如何创建channel:

cryptogen generate --config=./crypto-config.yaml
export CHANNEL_NAME=mychannel  

configtxgen -profile TwoOrgsChannel -outputCreateChannelTx ./channel-artifacts/channel.tx -channelID $CHANNEL_NAME

Channel.tx实际是创建通道的请求报文内容,看下configtx.yaml的TwoOrgsChannel profile对应的联盟和通道应用,包含了Org1和Org2, 即mychannel通道允许org1或org2下的用户采访。


Profiles:
    TwoOrgsOrdererGenesis:
        Capabilities:
            <<: *ChannelCapabilities
        Orderer:
            <<: *OrdererDefaults
            Organizations:
                - *OrdererOrg
            Capabilities:
                <<: *OrdererCapabilities
        Consortiums:
            SampleConsortium:
                Organizations:
                    - *Org1
                    - *Org2
    TwoOrgsChannel:
        Consortium: SampleConsortium
        Application:
            <<: *ApplicationDefaults
            Organizations:
                - *Org1
                - *Org2
            Capabilities:
                <<: *ApplicationCapabilities


Organizations:

    # SampleOrg defines an MSP using the sampleconfig.  It should never be used
    # in production but may be used as a template for other definitions
    - &OrdererOrg
        # DefaultOrg defines the organization which is used in the sampleconfig
        # of the fabric.git development environment
        Name: OrdererOrg

        # ID to load the MSP definition as
        ID: OrdererMSP

        # MSPDir is the filesystem path which contains the MSP configuration
        MSPDir: crypto-config/ordererOrganizations/example.com/msp

    - &Org1
        # DefaultOrg defines the organization which is used in the sampleconfig
        # of the fabric.git development environment
        Name: Org1MSP

        # ID to load the MSP definition as
        ID: Org1MSP

        MSPDir: crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/msp

        AnchorPeers:
            # AnchorPeers defines the location of peers which can be used
            # for cross org gossip communication.  Note, this value is only
            # encoded in the genesis block in the Application section context
            - Host: peer0.org1.example.com
              Port: 7051

    - &Org2
        # DefaultOrg defines the organization which is used in the sampleconfig
        # of the fabric.git development environment
        Name: Org2MSP

        # ID to load the MSP definition as
        ID: Org2MSP

        MSPDir: crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org2.example.com/msp

        AnchorPeers:
            # AnchorPeers defines the location of peers which can be used
            # for cross org gossip communication.  Note, this value is only
            # encoded in the genesis block in the Application section context
            - Host: peer0.org2.example.com
              Port: 7051

我们假装专业些查看下channel.tx的内容

[root@k8s-master first-network]# configtxgen -profile TwoOrgsChannel -channelID mychannel  -inspectChannelCreateTx ./channel-artifacts/channel.tx 
2018-10-11 16:37:24.650 CST [common/tools/configtxgen] main -> INFO 001 Loading configuration
2018-10-11 16:37:24.663 CST [common/tools/configtxgen] doInspectChannelCreateTx -> INFO 002 Inspecting transaction
2018-10-11 16:37:24.663 CST [common/tools/configtxgen] doInspectChannelCreateTx -> INFO 003 Parsing transaction
{
    "payload": {
        "data": {
            "config_update": {
                "channel_id": "mychannel",
                "read_set": {
                    "groups": {
                        "Application": {
                            "groups": {
                                "Org1MSP": {
                                    "mod_policy": "",
                                    "version": "0"
                                },
                                "Org2MSP": {
                                    "mod_policy": "",
                                    "version": "0"
                                }
                            },
                            "mod_policy": "",
                            "version": "0"
                        }
                    },
                    "mod_policy": "",
                    "values": {
                        "Consortium": {
                            "mod_policy": "",
                            "version": "0"
                        }
                    },
                    "version": "0"
                },
                "write_set": {
                    "groups": {
                        "Application": {
                            "groups": {
                                "Org1MSP": {
                                    "mod_policy": "",
                                    "version": "0"
                                },
                                "Org2MSP": {
                                    "mod_policy": "",
                                    "version": "0"
                                }
                            },
                            "mod_policy": "Admins",
                            "policies": {
                                "Admins": {
                                    "mod_policy": "Admins",
                                    "policy": {
                                        "type": 3,
                                        "value": {
                                            "rule": "MAJORITY",
                                            "sub_policy": "Admins"
                                        }
                                    },
                                    "version": "0"
                                },
                                "Readers": {
                                    "mod_policy": "Admins",
                                    "policy": {
                                        "type": 3,
                                        "value": {
                                            "rule": "ANY",
                                            "sub_policy": "Readers"
                                        }
                                    },
                                    "version": "0"
                                },
                                "Writers": {
                                    "mod_policy": "Admins",
                                    "policy": {
                                        "type": 3,
                                        "value": {
                                            "rule": "ANY",
                                            "sub_policy": "Writers"
                                        }
                                    },
                                    "version": "0"
                                }
                            },
                            "values": {
                                "Capabilities": {
                                    "mod_policy": "Admins",
                                    "value": {
                                        "capabilities": {
                                            "V1_2": {}
                                        }
                                    },
                                    "version": "0"
                                }
                            },
                            "version": "1"
                        }
                    },
                    "mod_policy": "",
                    "values": {
                        "Consortium": {
                            "mod_policy": "",
                            "value": {
                                "name": "SampleConsortium"
                            },
                            "version": "0"
                        }
                    },
                    "version": "0"
                }
            }
        },
        "header": {
            "channel_header": {
                "channel_id": "mychannel",
                "epoch": "0",
                "timestamp": "2018-10-11T07:13:13.000Z",
                "tx_id": "",
                "type": 2,
                "version": 0
            }
        }
    }
}

我们大概的看下这个交易json请求内容即可,主要是定义了更新channel的报文,定义了对应组织的读写,管理权限。

我们主要掌握配置configtx.yaml(BYFN的configtx.yaml简单了些,无法体现出读写,管理的权限配置)。 我们这次深入学习官方的sampleconfig下完整例子。

参考
https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/release-1.2/access_control.html
完整一些的configtx.yaml可以参考
https://github.com/hyperledger/fabric/blob/release-1.2/sampleconfig/configtx.yaml
Policy定义两种

(1)签名策略/signature policies

Organizations:

    # SampleOrg defines an MSP using the sampleconfig. It should never be used
    # in production but may be used as a template for other definitions.
    - &SampleOrg
        # Name is the key by which this org will be referenced in channel
        # configuration transactions.
        # Name can include alphanumeric characters as well as dots and dashes.
        Name: SampleOrg

        # ID is the key by which this org's MSP definition will be referenced.
        # ID can include alphanumeric characters as well as dots and dashes.
        ID: SampleOrg

        # MSPDir is the filesystem path which contains the MSP configuration.
        MSPDir: msp

        # Policies defines the set of policies at this level of the config tree
        # For organization policies, their canonical path is usually
        #   /Channel/<Application|Orderer>/<OrgName>/<PolicyName>
        Policies: &SampleOrgPolicies
            Readers:
                Type: Signature
                Rule: "OR('SampleOrg.member')"
                # If your MSP is configured with the new NodeOUs, you might
                # want to use a more specific rule like the following:
                # Rule: "OR('SampleOrg.admin', 'SampleOrg.peer', 'SampleOrg.client')"
            Writers:
                Type: Signature
                Rule: "OR('SampleOrg.member')"
                # If your MSP is configured with the new NodeOUs, you might
                # want to use a more specific rule like the following:
                # Rule: "OR('SampleOrg.admin', 'SampleOrg.client')"
            Admins:
                Type: Signature
                Rule: "OR('SampleOrg.admin')"

        # AnchorPeers defines the location of peers which can be used for
        # cross-org gossip communication. Note, this value is only encoded in
        # the genesis block in the Application section context.
        AnchorPeers:
            - Host: 127.0.0.1
Port: 7051

简单点说就是证书里面不是有organization(O=xx)和organizationUnit(OU=xx), 结合逻辑关系操作符OR, AND, NOutOf

(2)ImplicitMeta 隐式标签

Channel: &ChannelDefaults
    # Policies defines the set of policies at this level of the config tree
    # For Channel policies, their canonical path is
    #   /Channel/<PolicyName>
    Policies:
        # Who may invoke the 'Deliver' API
        Readers:
            Type: ImplicitMeta
            Rule: "ANY Readers"
        # Who may invoke the 'Broadcast' API
        Writers:
            Type: ImplicitMeta
            Rule: "ANY Writers"
        # By default, who may modify elements at this config level
        Admins:
            Type: ImplicitMeta
            Rule: "MAJORITY Admins"


    # Capabilities describes the channel level capabilities, see the
    # dedicated Capabilities section elsewhere in this file for a full
    # description
    Capabilities:
<<: *ChannelCapabilities

Rule语法 .
MAJORITY - 满足主要的子组的策略, 上面例子的Admins应该是下一级的signature policy
ANY - 满足任意子组的policy
ALL - 满足所有的子组的policy

那这些POLICY怎么使用呢?通常结合ACL配置Resource的采访权限,Resource基本定义为 系统或用户的chaincode, 和系统消息资源, 我们看个例子:

Application: &ApplicationDefaults
    ACLs: &ACLsDefault
        # This section provides defaults for policies for various resources
        # in the system. These "resources" could be functions on system chaincodes
        # (e.g., "GetBlockByNumber" on the "qscc" system chaincode) or other resources
        # (e.g.,who can receive Block events). This section does NOT specify the resource's
        # definition or API, but just the ACL policy for it.
        #
        # User's can override these defaults with their own policy mapping by defining the
        # mapping under ACLs in their channel definition

        #---Lifecycle System Chaincode (lscc) function to policy mapping for access control---#

        # ACL policy for lscc's "getid" function
        lscc/ChaincodeExists: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL policy for lscc's "getdepspec" function
        lscc/GetDeploymentSpec: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL policy for lscc's "getccdata" function
        lscc/GetChaincodeData: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL Policy for lscc's "getchaincodes" function
        lscc/GetInstantiatedChaincodes: /Channel/Application/Readers

        #---Query System Chaincode (qscc) function to policy mapping for access control---#

        # ACL policy for qscc's "GetChainInfo" function
        qscc/GetChainInfo: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL policy for qscc's "GetBlockByNumber" function
        qscc/GetBlockByNumber: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL policy for qscc's  "GetBlockByHash" function
        qscc/GetBlockByHash: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL policy for qscc's "GetTransactionByID" function
        qscc/GetTransactionByID: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL policy for qscc's "GetBlockByTxID" function
        qscc/GetBlockByTxID: /Channel/Application/Readers

        #---Configuration System Chaincode (cscc) function to policy mapping for access control---#

        # ACL policy for cscc's "GetConfigBlock" function
        cscc/GetConfigBlock: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL policy for cscc's "GetConfigTree" function
        cscc/GetConfigTree: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL policy for cscc's "SimulateConfigTreeUpdate" function
        cscc/SimulateConfigTreeUpdate: /Channel/Application/Readers

        #---Miscellanesous peer function to policy mapping for access control---#

        # ACL policy for invoking chaincodes on peer
        peer/Propose: /Channel/Application/Writers

        # ACL policy for chaincode to chaincode invocation
        peer/ChaincodeToChaincode: /Channel/Application/Readers

        #---Events resource to policy mapping for access control###---#

        # ACL policy for sending block events
        event/Block: /Channel/Application/Readers

        # ACL policy for sending filtered block events
        event/FilteredBlock: /Channel/Application/Readers

    # Organizations lists the orgs participating on the application side of the
    # network.
    Organizations:

    # Policies defines the set of policies at this level of the config tree
    # For Application policies, their canonical path is
    #   /Channel/Application/<PolicyName>
    Policies: &ApplicationDefaultPolicies
        Readers:
            Type: ImplicitMeta
            Rule: "ANY Readers"
        Writers:
            Type: ImplicitMeta
            Rule: "ANY Writers"
        Admins:
            Type: ImplicitMeta
            Rule: "MAJORITY Admins"

    # Capabilities describes the application level capabilities, see the
    # dedicated Capabilities section elsewhere in this file for a full
    # description
    Capabilities:
<<: *ApplicationCapabilities

ApplicationDefault是Channel应用的默认配置, ACLsDefault就是配置chaincode和policy映射, 例如:
lscc和qscc都是系统默认的chaincode, 可以对应/Channel/Application/Reader或Writer
这里是Reader,Writer policy归属在Application当前配置范围, 但它们又使用隐式策略ANY Readers, ANY Writers让下一级的的子策略组去确定是否可以采访。

Channel应用的下一级就有组织, 我们再看例子中的Profile:

# SampleDevModeSolo defines a configuration which uses the Solo orderer,
# contains the sample MSP as both orderer and consortium member, and
# requires only basic membership for admin privileges. It also defines
# an Application on the ordering system channel, which should usually
# be avoided.
    SampleDevModeSolo:
        <<: *ChannelDefaults
        Orderer:
            <<: *OrdererDefaults
            Organizations:
                - <<: *SampleOrg
                  Policies:
                      <<: *SampleOrgPolicies
                      Admins:
                          Type: Signature
                          Rule: "OR('SampleOrg.member')"
        Application:
            <<: *ApplicationDefaults
            Organizations:
                - <<: *SampleOrg
                  Policies:
                      <<: *SampleOrgPolicies
                      Admins:
                          Type: Signature
                          Rule: "OR('SampleOrg.member')"
        Consortiums:
            SampleConsortium:
                Organizations:
                    - <<: *SampleOrg
                      Policies:
                          <<: *SampleOrgPolicies
                          Admins:
                              Type: Signature
Rule: "OR('SampleOrg.member')"

SampleDevModeSolo定义了一个区块链网络.
Application定义为Channel应用, 使用默认的ApplicationDefault配置。
包含SampleOrg一个组织, 在policy定义上有贴内容。

Policies基于SampleOrgPolicies, 并且覆写其中的Admins policy定义, 定义为X.509证书归属到SampleOrg下member都可以是Admins, 这里的member应该是统配符指SampleOrg下的任意会员, 应该不是特别的OU, 也可以指定特定的OU, 例如SampleOrg.peer, SampleOrg.client, 我们之前看过一些X.509内容。

如果你看得昏昏的就对了,笔者也写得有点晕,是不是这设计有点复杂? 当然平常这些ACL的配置我们一般很少需要去配置, 就按照configtxgen生成的默认值就好, 但是开发者需要知道Readers, Writers, Admins 策略的含义和默认的ACL的策略。

回过头到BYFN的channel.tx更新交易报文内容, 估计就懂些了。

[root@k8s-master first-network]# configtxgen -profile TwoOrgsChannel -channelID mychannel  -inspectChannelCreateTx ./channel-artifacts/channel.tx

read_set应该没多大作用,主要是用于更新写报文的write_set, 定义了groups是由Org1MSP, Org2MSP组成, 即mychannel有两个组织会员组成,policies定义了Readers, Writers, Admins可对channel读,写和管理。

Readers/Writers/Admins下的ModPolicy则是指定谁才可以修改这些Readers/Writers/Amins策略内容, 这里一般都是Admins本身。

而具体的Readers,Writers权限ACL应该就是类似上面ApplicationDefaults默认对应的chaincode内容,没显式的打出来。

Readers,Writers对应的Signature Policy, Admins到底对应什么签名用户又哪里找得到呢?要晕了吧,又得回去找下创始块的内容。

configtxgen -inspectBlock ./channel-artifacts/genesis.block

t_dfea790b60a34bdb81cd0547d58dd0f6.png

t_615babf475634ccf9d6ec1733f370aea.png

t_2f5d2def78c440e89a0f6efb47d27212.png

创世块json具体一些细节笔者一下也没找到些文档对应,讲不好要跟下configtxgen源码才能对应好,读者有兴趣也请自行跟进。

小结一下:

一个channel即一个账本,一个链。
其下包含多个org组织, 组织会配置上admin, 还有OU组织单元标记用户(config.yaml)。
一个组织可有多个接入peer节点,peer有自己的local MSP限制接入。

说白了用户接入peer,再接入到通道,还是得依靠自身的证书的组织和OU等是否符合channel的权限配置。

如果确实需要定制化一些权限,可以在configtx.yaml组织的配置上覆写新的policy策略。

3.chaincode的权限如何配置?

(1) 参考问题2的ApplicationDefaults ACL配置
Chaincode的安装,实例化应该是系统级的chaincode实现的, 默认需要高级些的权限, 一般是组织Admins。

Chaincode的调用需要Writers策略

ACL policy for invoking chaincodes on peer

peer/Propose: /Channel/Application/Writers

(2) 而在链码的实例化的时候是可以配置背书策略(特别是在更新操作的时候要首先要发请求到背书节点)例如需要org1和org2背书。

peer chaincode instantiate -o orderer.example.com:7050 --tls --cafile /opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/peer/crypto/ordererOrganizations/example.com/orderers/orderer.example.com/msp/tlscacerts/tlsca.example.com-cert.pem -C $CHANNEL_NAME -n mycc -v 1.0 -c '{"Args":["init","a", "100", "b","200"]}' -P "AND ('Org1MSP.peer','Org2MSP.peer')"

(3)使用私有数据可以配置策略, 例如

# ACL policy for invoking chaincodes on peer
peer/Propose: /Channel/Application/Writers


// collections_config.json

[
  {
       "name": "collectionMarbles",
       "policy": "OR('Org1MSP.member', 'Org2MSP.member')",
       "requiredPeerCount": 0,
       "maxPeerCount": 3,
       "blockToLive":1000000
  },

  {
       "name": "collectionMarblePrivateDetails",
       "policy": "OR('Org1MSP.member')",
       "requiredPeerCount": 0,
       "maxPeerCount": 3,
       "blockToLive":3
  }
]
peer chaincode instantiate -o orderer.example.com:7050 --tls --cafile $ORDERER_CA -C mychannel -n marblesp -v 1.0 -c '{"Args":["init"]}' -P "OR('Org1MSP.member','Org2MSP.member')" --collections-config  $GOPATH/src/github.com/chaincode/marbles02_private/collections_config.json

(4)链码级别的背书策略设置
Chaincode/链码级别的背书策略之前我们是在chaincode实例化和更新时才能修改背书策略, 而现在新的shim api接口支持在chaincode编写的时候动态的设置背书策略。

对应shim api接口:

SetStateValidationParameter(key string, ep []byte) error
GetStateValidationParameter(key string) ([]byte, error)

SetPrivateDataValidationParameter(collection, key string, ep []byte) error
GetPrivateDataValidationParameter(collection, key string) ([]byte, error)

对应ep策略结构
type KeyEndorsementPolicy interface {
    // Policy returns the endorsement policy as bytes
    Policy() ([]byte, error)

    // AddOrgs adds the specified orgs to the list of orgs that are required
    // to endorse
    AddOrgs(roleType RoleType, organizations ...string) error

    // DelOrgs delete the specified channel orgs from the existing key-level endorsement
    // policy for this KVS key. If any org is not present, an error will be returned.
    DelOrgs([]string) error

    // DelAllOrgs removes any key-level endorsement policy from this KVS key.
    DelAllOrgs() error

    // ListOrgs returns an array of channel orgs that are required to endorse changes
    ListOrgs() ([]string, error)
}

最后总结下
这个进阶篇可能会有其它一些遗漏,例如orderer权限, 动态调整权限等。 笔者的团队会在实践后再和大家分享, 有问题也欢迎大家多交流。

t_861229ed878145d8b35555f1220c921b.png

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